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  • Writer's pictureKelvin Mureithi

Section J Energy Efficiency


As an architect or builder, you know constructing or renovating commercial buildings comes with a web of compliance requirements. One critical piece is Section J of the National Construction Code (NCC). This in-depth guide provides insider knowledge to help you make sense of Section J energy efficiency reports.

What Does NCC Section J Cover?

Section J focuses on the thermal performance of the building envelope across 8 key areas:

  • J1: Building fabric like walls, floors, roofs, glazing

  • J2: External glazing including shading and orientation

  • J3: Building sealing like ductwork and air barriers

  • J4: Artificial lighting and power

  • J5: Hot water supply and swimming pool heating

  • J6: Air conditioning and ventilation systems

  • J7: Facilities for energy monitoring

  • J8: Access for maintenance and building services

By regulating these elements, Section J aims to reduce energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and power bills.

When is a Section J Report Required?

If you're undertaking building work valued over $50,000 on a Class 2 to 9 structure, you'll need a Section J energy efficiency report to prove NCC compliance. This includes:

  • Class 2 – Common areas of a Class 2 Building

  • Class 3 – Aged care homes, hotels, motels

  • Class 5 – Offices, shops, restaurants

  • Class 6 – Warehouses, factories

  • Class 7 – Carparks

  • Class 8 – Carparks

  • Class 9 – Carparks

Now let's look at the two pathways available to show compliance with the aforementioned energy efficiency requirements. Here's the first one:

Deemed-to-Satisfy (DTS) Method

The most straightforward NCC compliance pathway is the DTS method. It uses prescriptive formulas and requirements for each building element covered under Section J.

For example, DTS specifies the exact R-value and type of insulation required in floors, walls, and ceilings for each climate zone. It also dictates maximum U-value ratings for windows and other glazing. DTS tables outline explicit requirements for sealing, lighting, ventilation, and other systems.

To comply using the DTS method, you must follow these provisions precisely, with no exceptions. But this rigor also makes DTS inflexible:

  • Walls with exposed concrete for aesthetic reasons would still need full insulation.

  • Highly glazed façade designs often fail DTS glazing maximums, requiring costly upgrades like triple glazing.

Since DTS looks at each element in isolation, it cannot account for interactions that balance out lower performance in one area with gains in another.

Additionally, DTS does not cover some common scenarios:

  • Class 2 apartments and Class 4 dwellings require NatHERS star ratings, not DTS.

  • Accommodating renewable energy systems may need alternative solutions.

  • Council sustainability goals may exceed base DTS requirements, necessitating other verification.

In essence, DTS provides clear prescriptive requirements that can constrain preferences and increase costs. This is where the holistic view of Verification Methods offers advantages. Let's look at it:

Verification Methods

For more design flexibility, Section J offers Verification Methods like JV2 and JV3 modelling. These assess the holistic thermal performance of the entire building.

JV2 uses Green Star or NABERS sustainability ratings tools. While more rigorous, certification provides strong marketing benefits like attracting eco-conscious tenants.

JV3 modelling evaluates the building's total predicted energy use through thermal simulation software. This allows trade-offs between elements. For example:

  • Enhanced glazing can offset less insulation in walls.

  • Natural ventilation can reduce mechanical air conditioning needs.

  • Efficient lighting can compensate for larger window areas.

By considering interactions between all building components, JV3 provides compliance pathways unavailable through DTS. The holistic approach optimises the building envelope as an integrated system.

JV3 also aligns with other simulation-based assessments like daylight modelling. Using one unified energy model streamlines the process and reduces costs.

Verification Methods offer a flexible, performance-based alternative to prescriptive DTS requirements. JV2 and JV3 demonstrate compliance while allowing creative design unhindered by rigid envelope formulas.

In Summary

Navigating Section J reports requires understanding your options. While DTS offers simplicity, Verification Methods provide design flexibility and holistic performance assessment. Partnering with domain experts like Makao gives you custom guidance to achieve compliance while optimising sustainability and budget.


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